June 19, 2024
  • Copeland, W. E., Keeler, G., Angold, A. & Costello, E. J. Traumatic events and posttraumatic stress in childhood. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 64, 577–584 (2007).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Landolt, M. A., Schnyder, U., Maier, T., Schoenbucher, V. & Mohler-Kuo, M. Trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescents: a national survey in Switzerland. J. Trauma. Stress 26, 209–216 (2013).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • McLaughlin, K. A. et al. Trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder in a national sample of adolescents. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 52, 815–830.e14 (2013).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, P., Dalgleish, T. & Meiser-Stedman, R. Practitioner review: posttraumatic stress disorder and its treatment in children and adolescents. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 60, 500–515 (2019).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Steil, R. & Rosner, R. Posttraumatische Belastungsstörung bei Kindern und Jugendlichen. In Posttraumatische Belastungsstörungen (ed Maercker, A.) 321–343 (Springer, 2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-88489-7_19.

  • Ogle, C. M., Rubin, D. C. & Siegler, I. C. The impact of the developmental timing of trauma exposure on PTSD symptoms and psychosocial functioning among older adults. Dev. Psychol. 49, 2191–2200 (2013).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Porche, M. V., Fortuna, L. R., Lin, J. & Alegria, M. Childhood trauma and psychiatric disorders as correlates of school dropout in a national sample of young adults. Child Dev. 82, 982–998 (2011).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Adams, Z. W. et al. Comorbidity of PTSD, major depression, and substance use disorder among adolescent victims of the Spring 2011 Tornadoes in Alabama and Joplin, Missouri. Psychiatry 78, 170–185 (2015).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Dams, J. et al. Health-related quality of life and costs of posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescents and young adults in Germany. Front. Psychiatry 11, 697 (2020).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Yehuda, R., Halligan, S. L. & Grossman, R. Childhood trauma and risk for PTSD: relationship to intergenerational effects of trauma, parental PTSD, and cortisol excretion. Dev. Psychopathol. 13, 733–753 (2001).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Anda, R. F. et al. Adverse childhood experiences, alcoholic parents, and later risk of alcoholism and depression. Psychiatr. Serv. 53, 1001–1009 (2002).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown, D. W. et al. Adverse childhood experiences and the risk of premature mortality. Am. J. Prev. Med. 37, 389–396 (2009).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • ISTSS Guidelines Committee. ISTSS PTSD prevention and treatment guidelines methodology and recommendations. (2019).

  • NICE. The management of PTSD in adults and children in primary and secondary care. National Clinical Practice Guideline Number 26 (2005).

  • Rosner, R., Gutermann, J., Landolt, M. A., Plener, P. & Steil, R. Die neue S3-Leitlinie Posttraumatische Belastungsstörung (PTBS). Trauma Gewalt 14, 132–142 (2020).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Schnurr, P. P. Focusing on trauma-focused psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Curr. Opin. Psychol. 14, 56–60 (2017).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Schnyder, U. et al. Psychotherapies for PTSD: what do they have in common? Eur. J. Psychotraumatol. 6, 28186 (2015).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Mavranezouli, I. et al. Research Review: Psychological and psychosocial treatments for children and young people with post‐traumatic stress disorder: a network meta‐analysis. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 61, 18–29 (2020).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Bisson, J. I. et al. The International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies new guidelines for the prevention and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: Methodology and development process. J. Trauma. Stress 32, 475–483 (2019).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Kerbage, H., Bazzi, O., El Hage, W., Corruble, E. & Purper-Ouakil, D. Early Interventions to prevent post-traumatic stress disorder in youth after exposure to a potentially traumatic event: a scoping review. Healthcare 10, 818 (2022).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Bisson, J. I. et al. Preventing the onset of post traumatic stress disorder. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 86, 102004 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Bundes Psychotherapeuten Kammer. Studie – Ein Jahr nach der Reform der Psychotherapie-Richtlinie. https://api.bptk.de/uploads/20180411_bptk_studie_wartezeiten_2018_c0ab16b390.pdf.

  • Gulliver, A., Griffiths, K. M. & Christensen, H. Perceived barriers and facilitators to mental health help-seeking in young people: a systematic review. BMC Psychiatry 10, 1–9 (2010).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Kantor, V., Knefel, M. & Lueger-Schuster, B. Perceived barriers and facilitators of mental health service utilization in adult trauma survivors: a systematic review. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 52, 52–68 (2017).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Lewis, S. F. et al. Assault, psychiatric diagnoses, and sociodemographic variables in relation to help-seeking behavior in a national sample of women. J. Trauma. Stress 18, 97–105 (2005).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Müller, M., Klewer, J. & Karutz, H. Ambulante psychotherapeutische Versorgungssituation von traumatisierten Kindern und Jugendlichen in Deutschland. Z. Für Kinder- Jugendpsychiatrie Psychother. 47, 314–322 (2019).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Burns, J. M., Davenport, T. A., Durkin, L. A., Luscombe, G. M. & Hickie, I. B. The Internet as a setting for mental health service utilisation by young people. Med. J. Aust. 192, S22–S26 (2010).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Pase, C., Mathias, A. D., Garcia, C. D. & Garcia Rodrigues, C. Using social media for the promotion of education and consultation in adolescents who have undergone kidney transplant: protocol for a randomized control trial. JMIR Res. Protoc. 7, e3 (2018).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Barak, A., Klein, B. & Proudfoot, J. G. Defining internet-supported therapeutic interventions. Ann. Behav. Med. 38, 4–17 (2009).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Ebert, D. D. et al. Internet- and mobile-based psychological interventions: applications, efficacy, and potential for improving mental health. Eur. Psychol. 23, 167–187 (2018).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Kuester, A., Niemeyer, H. & Knaevelsrud, C. Internet-based interventions for posttraumatic stress: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 43, 1–16 (2016).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Sijbrandij, M., Kunovski, I. & Cuijpers, P. Effectiveness of Internet-Delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Depress. Anxiety 33, 783–791 (2016).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Steubl, L., Sachser, C., Baumeister, H. & Domhardt, M. Mechanisms of change in Internet- and mobile-based interventions for PTSD: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur. J. Psychotraumatol. 12, 1879551 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Bisson, J. I. et al. Guided, internet-based, cognitive behavioural therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder: pragmatic, multicentre, randomised controlled non-inferiority trial (RAPID). BMJ 377, e069405 (2022).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Simon, N. et al. Internet-based cognitive and behavioural therapies for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 5, CD011710 (2021).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Ehlers, A. et al. Therapist-assisted online psychological therapies differing in trauma focus for post-traumatic stress disorder (STOP-PTSD): a UK-based, single-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Psychiatry 10, 608–622 (2023).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Cohen, J. A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educ. Psychol. Meas. 20, 37–46 (1960).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Landis, J. R. & Koch, G. G. The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics 33, 159–174 (1977).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Verlinden, E. et al. Characteristics of the children’s revised impact of event scale in a clinically referred Dutch sample. J. Trauma. Stress 27, 338–344 (2014).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Foa, E. B., Johnson, K. M., Feeny, N. C. & Treadwell, K. R. H. The Child PTSD symptom scale: a preliminary examination of its psychometric properties. J. Clin. Child Adolesc. Psychol. 30, 376–384 (2001).

    Article 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar 

  • Horowitz, M., Wilner, N. & Alvarez, W. Impact of event scale: a measure of subjective stress. Psychosom. Med. 41, 209 (1979).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Briere, J. Trauma symptom checklist for children. Psychol. Assess. Resour. (1996).

  • Kilpatrick, D. G. et al. Violence and risk of PTSD, major depression, substance abuse/dependence, and comorbidity: results from the National Survey of Adolescents. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 71, 692–700 (2003).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Ehlers, A. & Clark, D. M. A cognitive model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Behav. Res. Ther. 38, 319–345 (2000).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Kumpfer, K. Factors and processes contributing to resilience. In Resilience and development: Positive life adaptations (Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 1999).

  • van Rosmalen-Nooijens, K., Wong, S. L. F., Prins, J. & Lagro-Janssen, T. Young people, adult worries: randomized controlled trial and feasibility study of the internet-based self-support method feel the vibe for adolescents and young adults exposed to family violence. J. Med. Internet Res. 19, e204 (2017).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Eilert, N., Wogan, R., Leen, A. & Richards, D. Internet-delivered interventions for depression and anxiety symptoms in children and young people: systematic review and meta-analysis. JMIR Pediatr. Parent. 5, e33551 (2022).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Gutermann, J. et al. Psychological treatments for symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in children, adolescents, and young adults: a meta-analysis. Clin. Child Fam. Psychol. Rev. 19, 77–93 (2016).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Shaffer, K. M. et al. Dyadic psychosocial ehealth interventions: systematic scoping review. J. Med. Internet Res. 22, e15509 (2020).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Thielemann, J. F. B., Kasparik, B., König, J., Unterhitzenberger, J. & Rosner, R. A systematic review and meta-analysis of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy for children and adolescents. Child Abuse Negl. 134, 105899 (2022).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Knaevelsrud, C., Brand, J., Lange, A., Ruwaard, J. & Wagner, B. Web-based psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in war-traumatized Arab patients: Randomized controlled trial. J. Med. Internet Res. 17, e71 (2015).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Simon, N. The acceptability of a Guided Self-Help, internet-based trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy, for adults with mild to moderate Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) (Cardiff University, 2021).

  • Rioux, C. & Little, T. D. Missing data treatments in intervention studies: what was, what is, and what should be. Int. J. Behav. Dev. 45, 51–58 (2021).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Melville, K. M., Casey, L. M. & Kavanagh, D. J. Dropout from internet-based treatment for psychological disorders. Br. J. Clin. Psychol. 49, 455–471 (2010).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Liverpool, S. et al. Engaging children and young people in digital mental health interventions: systematic review of modes of delivery, facilitators, and barriers. J. Med. Internet Res. 22, e16317 (2020).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Mallinckrodt, C. H., Lane, P. W., Schnell, D., Peng, Y. & Mancuso, J. P. Recommendations for the primary analysis of continuous endpoints in longitudinal clinical trials. Drug Inf. J. 42, 303–319 (2008).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Cuijpers, P., Weitz, E., Cristea, I. A. & Twisk, J. Pre-post effect sizes should be avoided in meta-analyses. Epidemiol. Psychiatr. Sci. 26, 364–368 (2017).

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Yardley, L., Ainsworth, B., Arden-Close, E. & Muller, I. The person-based approach to enhancing the acceptability and feasibility of interventions. Pilot Feasibility Stud. 1, 37 (2015).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Kleinjan, L. A scoping Review into the use of Blended Therapy for PTSD: exploring treatment protocols and guidelines. (2023).

  • Higgins, J. P. T. et al. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions (John Wiley & Sons, 2019).

  • Liberati, A. et al. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration. Ann. Intern. Med. 151, W–65 (2009).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Page, M. J. et al. The PRISMA 2020 statement: an updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews. BMJ 372, n71 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • Sterne, J. A. C. et al. RoB 2: a revised tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials. BMJ 366, l4898 (2019).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • Sterne, J. A. C. et al. ROBINS-I: a tool for assessing risk of bias in non-randomised studies of interventions. BMJ 355, i4919 (2016).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar 

  • R Core Team. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing (2023).

  • Plummer, M. JAGS Version 3.3. 0 user manual. (2003).

  • Harrer, M., Cuijpers, P., Furukawa, T. A. & Ebert, D. D. Doing Meta-Analysis with R: A Hands-On Guide (CRC Press, 2021).

  • Becker, B. J. Synthesizing standardized mean-change measures. Br. J. Math. Stat. Psychol. 41, 257–278 (1988).

    Article 

    Google Scholar 

  • Williams., D. R., Rast, P. & Bürkner, P. C. Bayesian meta-analysis with weakly informative prior distributions. (2018).

  • Sterne, J. A. C. et al. Recommendations for examining and interpreting funnel plot asymmetry in meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials. BMJ 343, d4002 (2011).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar 

  • link

    Leave a Reply

    Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *