A recent study published in the Social Science and Medicine indicates that the infamous Capitol riot on January 6, 2021, led to a noticeable increase in mental health symptoms among the US population. Particularly, Democrats seemed to be affected more severely, showing significant signs of deteriorating mental well-being.
Political events often reverberate beyond policy implications, touching people’s lives in unexpected ways. Past research has explored how such events can emotionally impact individuals, especially when those events are traumatic or highly publicized. The Capitol riot, where supporters of then-President Trump breached the US Capitol, aiming to overturn the election results, was one such momentous event.
Video footage and reports released by media outlets allowed for the public to view violent acts of breaking through police barricades, making murder threats against political figures, and behavior that overall led to the deaths of five individuals. Recognized by authorities as an act of domestic terrorism, it left indelible images in the collective memory — leading certain researchers to want to unpack the incident’s impact on public mental health.
As the political divide in the U.S. deepens, understanding the psychological repercussions of such tumultuous events has become crucial. As such, researchers moved forward with finding an answer to the question: did an event as charged and violent as the Capitol riot have a tangible impact on mental well-being? Moreover, did political affiliations influence how individuals responded mentally and emotionally to this event?
To find answers, lead author Abhery Das — alongside co-authors Brittany Morey and Tim Bruckner, analyzed data from a survey called Understanding America Study (UAS), as well as the Understanding Coronavirus Survey (UAS Coronavirus), which tracks mental health symptoms. This longitudinal, representative dataset offers insights into various facets of American lives over time.
By examining the responses before and after the Capitol riot, the team aimed to discern any changes in the mental health symptoms of the participants. It is worth noting that the sample size was representative of the broader US adult population, lending credibility and depth to the findings. Researchers operationalized mental well-being by examining responses to statements like “I felt down, depressed, or hopeless” and gauged the frequency of such feelings among participants.
The UAS survey and the UAS Coronavirus survey were given to a panel of adults from across all 50 states in the United States every two weeks, beginning on March 10, 2020. There were a total of 8,151 participants who took part in the surveys, which lasted until November 2, 2020.
The results revealed a modest but significant increase in mental health symptoms after the Capitol riot. When filtered through the lens of political affiliation, Democrats displayed a marked deterioration in their mental well-being — namely, greater depression and anxiety symptoms. In contrast, Republicans appeared relatively unaffected, showing no noticeable change in their mental health post-event. This suggests that the riot had a polarizing effect emotionally, contingent perhaps on one’s political beliefs and perceived stakes in the event’s outcome.
Upon diving deeper, the study unveiled that the residents of states that supported either Biden or Trump were affected similarly, regardless of their state’s political leanings. In other words, the emotional aftermath of the Capitol riot was a national phenomenon, transcending regional political dynamics. Overall, the findings cohere with previous research on partisan responses which concluded that the “losing party” of a presidential election experiences worse outcomes as opposed to a reduced influence on the winning party.
While the study provides a detailed perspective, it does have its limitations. The data does not shed light on how deeply individuals were exposed to the event’s details or their consumption pattern of related media. It is known from previous studies that extensive media exposure, especially when it contains traumatic visuals, can amplify the mental health impact. Moreover, the data doesn’t delve into the nuances of participants’ political sentiments beyond their registered party, nor does it consider their specific geographical locations within states, which might have its own set of influencing factors.
Overall, as the nation continues to grapple with deepening political divides, studies like these aim to remind people of the profound personal and collective costs of schisms such as the Capitol riot. Future work should aim to continue mental health surveillance and the relationship that it bears with socio-political events in order to deepen our understanding and shine light on the importance of emotional and political intersections.
The study, “Mental health symptoms following the January 6th attack on the United States Capitol“, was authored by Abhery Das, Brittany N. Morey, and Tim A Bruckner.