Repression is the unconscious blocking of distressing thoughts, impulses, feelings, or memories out of your conscious mind. In psychology, repression is seen as a defense mechanism that helps protect against anxiety arising from thoughts or emotions that are too painful to acknowledge.

People might repress unwanted memories of past relationships, traumatic childhood experiences, taboo desires, or strong emotions—especially those associated with negative or uncomfortable experiences.

This article explains psychological repression and provides examples of repression and the physical and emotional signs and symptoms. It also covers therapeutic methods that may help work through repression to promote healing. 

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Unconscious Repression: Examples of the Defense Mechanism

Repression is a powerful defense mechanism that protects people from overwhelming or uncomfortable thoughts and feelings. It is unconscious (unintentional), acting as a psychological shield to help people navigate life without the burden of distressing experiences (trauma) and preserve emotional well-being.

Repression is associated with a multitude of experiences, thoughts, or emotions. Here are a few examples:

  • Traumatic events from childhood: People might unconsciously repress traumatic events, such as accidents, abuse, or losses.
  • Repressed desires: Sometimes, unfulfilled desires and wishes may be repressed if they conflict with societal norms or personal values. For example, someone who grew up in a religious home believing that homosexuality is a “sin” may repress their sexual desires for others of the same sex.
  • Fearful phobias: Phobias and irrational fears may arise from repressed memories or experiences. The unconscious repression of these root causes can lead to exaggerated reactions to specific triggers. For example, a person might fear large bodies of water, unaware that the fear originated when they almost drowned in a lake as a toddler.
  • Negative self-image: Memories that contribute to a negative self-image might be repressed to maintain a more positive self-perception. This mechanism protects self-esteem but can hinder personal growth.

Repression vs. Suppression

Repression is sometimes confused with suppression—another psychological defense mechanism. While both involve distressing thoughts, emotions, and memories, suppression is the conscious and deliberate effort to push away or control these feelings, whereas repression is entirely subconscious.

Characteristics of Emotional Repression

Although you are unaware of repressed emotions, they still exist in your unconscious mind and profoundly influence your psychological health and interactions with others. Signs of emotional repression include:

  • Struggling to identify and express feelings or appearing emotionally distant or numb
  • Unexpected mood swings, such as appearing cheerful one minute and irritable or withdrawn the next 
  • Avoidance of specific topics, people, or situations 
  • Seeking constant distractions, such as excessive work, hobbies, or screen time 
  • Strained relationships due to a struggle to connect emotionally, leading to communication breakdowns and misunderstandings 
  • Heightened stress levels
  • Turning to substances (e.g., alcohol or drugs) or behavioral addictions, such as gambling, shopping, or sex 
  • Frequent feelings of unease, sadness, or discomfort but unable to identify the source of those feelings 
  • Difficulty talking about thoughts or feelings and becoming defensive or irritated when asked about them 

Characteristics of Physical Repression 

Physical repression refers to how the body responds to repressed emotions. Over time, emotional repression can significantly impact your physical health and well-being. Evidence suggests that emotional repression can lead to physical symptoms, including:

  • Muscle pain and tension 
  • Headaches and migraines
  • Insomnia or restless sleep
  • Digestive problems, such as stomachaches, nausea, or indigestion
  • Weakened immune system, making you more susceptible to illness 
  • Cardiovascular issues, such as high blood pressure
  • Chronic fatigue

Research shows that pain levels related to chronic illnesses, such as cancer or arthritis, are higher in emotionally repressed people.

The Impact of Repression on Mental Health

Research shows that emotional repression increases the risk of certain mental health disorders, including:

Theories About Repression

Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, first introduced the concept of repression, suggesting that repressing painful or undesirable thoughts and memories into the unconscious mind protects people from emotional turmoil. Freud believed that repressed emotions could later resurface through dreams, slips of the tongue known as Freudian slips, or psychological distress.

Since then, repression has been the subject of debate in psychology, with many theories emerging on the underlying dynamics of repression and its role in shaping human behaviors. 

Cognitive Dissonance Theory

This theory suggests that repression occurs to manage cognitive dissonance—the discomfort that arises when conflict occurs between your beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Repression minimizes this dissonance by pushing conflicting thoughts and emotions out of awareness.

Adaptive Forgetting Hypothesis

Some experts believe that repression serves an adaptive function. The adaptive forgetting hypothesis suggests that people can focus on present and future challenges without being weighed down by past traumas by forgetting or repressing distressing memories. This hypothesis emphasizes the role of repression in promoting psychological resilience.

Trauma Theory

This theory suggests that repression is an evolutionary mechanism that helps people cope with overwhelming trauma. The mind represses traumatic memories to prevent them from interfering with daily functioning. However, these repressed memories might resurface when people feel emotionally safe and ready to process them.

Repression and False Memories 

One of the most well-debated controversies on repression involves false memories. As people explore their past experiences and emotions, the line between genuine recollection and constructed memories can blur. Some studies suggest that people might create false memories under certain circumstances influenced by suggestions from others or external factors.

This controversy raises important questions about the accuracy of repressed memories, especially in trauma cases. While proponents of repression argue that the mind’s capacity to protect itself through forgetting is valuable, critics highlight the potential for these suppressed memories to become distorted over time. 

Is Repression Harmful or Protective?

The question of whether repression is harmful or protective has long been a subject of debate. In the short term, repression serves as a defense mechanism that shields people from overwhelming emotional distress, allowing them to focus on the present. 

However, research shows that repression can seriously impact your psychological and physical health in the long term. Repressed emotions may resurface unexpectedly, contributing to mood disorders, anxiety, and physical health issues. 

Striking a balance between acknowledging and processing repressed emotions while avoiding emotional overwhelm is crucial for your overall health and well-being. Working with a therapist can help you uncover and process repressed emotions in a healthy way. 

Working Through Repression With a Therapist 

Navigating the complexities of repression usually requires the guidance and expertise of qualified mental health professionals. Therapists, social workers, and other mental health practitioners are crucial in helping people identify and process repressed emotions. Therapeutic approaches for working through repression include: 

  • Psychodynamic therapy: Rooted in Freud’s theories, psychodynamic therapy aims to uncover repressed emotions and memories by delving into the unconscious mind. Therapists work with patients to explore hidden emotions and memories, fostering insight and emotional release.
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT): CBT focuses on changing negative thought patterns and behaviors. Therapists help people identify and challenge repressive tendencies, replacing them with healthier coping strategies.
  • Emotionally focused therapy (EFT): EFT focuses on exploring and addressing emotions within the context of relationships. This therapy helps individuals and couples understand their emotional responses and communicate effectively, fostering emotional intimacy.


Repression is a defense mechanism that involves the unconscious blocking of unwanted or overwhelming emotions, memories, thoughts, and impulses. While repression can be protective against emotions that cause anxiety or discomfort, in the long run, it can contribute to mental health disorders and impact your physical health. Licensed mental health professionals can help determine the best therapeutic approach for effectively addressing and healing from repressed emotions. 


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